EndWalls & Bracing Systems
Endwalls & Bracing Systems:-Endwalls are constructed with either Rigid Frames or more economical bearing frames (a PEB standard). Endwall girts frame to corner columns and wind columns either in a flush manner or in the more economical by-pass manner PEB Metal STEEL bearing frames and wind columns are manufactured from built-up I-sections instead of the less robust C-sections used by other PEB manufacturers in this region.
Bracing systems All horizonal loads on a structure must eventually be carried to column based and then to the building substructure (foundation and ground slabs). Horizonal loads result from the action of wind forces seismic (earth quake) forces and overhead cranes on the building structure .
Dialogonal Bracing is used in the roofs and walls of buildings to transfer wind forces to the building substructure. standard bracing system commonly used are galvanized cable strands, solid smooth rods, flat bars or angles.
Diagonal Rod Bracing is used to transfer longitudinal horizontal loads of traveling overhead cranes to substructure when the capacity of these cranes ranges between 5 MT and 20 MT.
Diagonal Angle Bracing is used to transfer longitudinal horizonal loads of traveling overhead cranes to substructure when the capacity of these cranes to substructure when the capacity of these cranes exceeds 20 MT. They are also used as wall bracing in very high buildings.
Portal Frames are used in exterior sidewalls or between the interior columns of Multin Span / Multi Gable buildings when diagonal bracing is not allowed because of a requirement for clear unobstructed space. Portal frames are made from built-up columns and beams. Their columns flanges are stitch bolted to the webs of the rigid frame columns and extend down to 150 mm above F.F.L. care must be taken to ensure that the bottom of the portal frame beam is higher than the required unobstructed height.